Fallopian tube obstruction is a major cause of female infertility. Blocked fallopian tubes are unable to let the ovum and the sperm to meet, thus making fertilization impossible.
Approximately 20% of female infertility can be attributed to tubal causes.
There are three types of tubal blockages
1. Proximal tubal occlusion:
This form of fallopian tube blockage involves the isthmus
2. Mid-segment tubal obstruction:
It occurs in the ampullary section of the fallopian tube and is most frequently a result of tubal ligation damage.
Distal tubal occlusion: This is a kind of blockage wherein the section of the fallopian tube that is close to the ovary is affected and is commonly associated with a condition known as hydrosalpinx
Causes of Tubal Block
- Pelvic inflammatory disease. This disease can cause scarring or hydrosalpinx.
- Tuberculosis very common cause in India for tubal damage.
- Endometrial tissue can build up in the fallopian tubes and cause a blockage. …
- Certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs). …
- Past ectopic pregnancy.
- Past abdominal surgery.
Blocked tubes are usually diagnosed with a specialized x-ray called a hysterosalpingogram or HSG. This test involves placing a dye through the cervix using a tiny tube. Once the dye has been given, the doctor will take x-rays of your pelvic area.
If fallopian tubes are blocked by small amounts of scar tissue or adhesions, doctor can use laparoscopic surgery to remove the blockage and open the tubes. If fallopian tubes are blocked by large amounts of scar tissue or adhesions, treatment to remove the blockages may not be possible.
For PID and Tuberculosis medical + surgical correction required
The most common treatment for women with hydrosalpinx is surgery whereas the affected or blocked tube gets removed. This surgery is known as salpingectomy. Surgery can also be an option to remove scar tissue or other adhesions that could negatively affect fertility.
Blocked fallopian tubes prevent natural conception, but in vitro fertilization (IVF) can bypass the tubes and achieve the Fertility.
If Hydrosalpinx is there on laparoscopy or it is seen in sonography it needs removal or clipping of the fallopian tube because fluid trickling from hydrosalpinx into uterine cavity will reduce the success rate of IVF by 50%.
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